Engaging Teachers: Measuring the Impact of Teachers on Student Attendance in Secondary School
Authors: Jing Liu and Susanna Loeb
Using measures of teachers’ contributions to student class-attendance in middle and high school and linking them to student long-run outcomes, this study finds systematic variation in teacher effectiveness at reducing unexcused class absences. Notably, a high value-added to attendance teacher has a much stronger impact on helping students to finish high school than a high value-added to achievement teacher, and can also motivate students to pursue higher academic goals as measured by Advanced Placement course taking.

Teacher Absences, Substitute Teachers, and Student Achievement
Authors: Jing Liu, Ying Shi, and Susanna Loeb
This study uses detailed administrative and survey data from a medium-sized urban school district to document the unequal distribution of teacher absences, coverage rates, and substitute teaching quality across schools. Although disadvantaged schools do not have systematically higher incidences of teacher absence, they exhibit significantly lower rates of substitute coverage and substitute teaching quality as characterized by both objective and perceived measures. Teacher fixed effects models show sizable negative effects of absences on math scores.

Stress in Boom Times: Understanding Teachers’ Economic Anxiety in a High Cost Urban District
Authors: Elise Dizon-Ross, Susanna Loeb, Emily Penner, and Jane Rochmes
This paper uses novel survey data from San Francisco to find evidence of high economic anxiety among teachers, which translates into behaviors that could negatively affect students. The focus is on understanding the prevalence and patterns of economic anxiety among teachers. The study also explores the implications with regard to teachers’ plans for resignation and behavior in the form of attendance to understand potential impacts on teacher supply.

Alignment in Attitudes About Equity: Teacher Hiring Practices
Authors: Diana Mercado-Garcia, Jane Rochmes, and Susanna Loeb
This study draws on novel survey measures to understand alignment (or lack of it) between teachers and principals with regard to their attitudes and beliefs about how the most pressing achievement gaps may affect how time is allocated and where educators concentrate their efforts. In addition to examining these patterns overall, the study also uses a long time series of administrative data to analyze alignment between newer teachers specifically and the principals who hired them. This project aims to descriptively explore alignment between teachers and principals about equity issues as well as to shed light on whether school cultures are relevant to how teachers and principals approach achievement gaps.

Is Disproportionate Sensitivity to Loss a Barrier to Equalization? The Presence of Loss Aversion in Policy Goal Considerations
Authors: Susanna Loeb and Erika Byun
This study uses randomized and experimental survey measures to explore whether individuals are loss averse when considering general policy objectives, and aims to understand the implications that the presence of loss aversion may have on achieving equity goals. The project draws an example from education policy to examine whether an equal growth or equitable student achievement trend is more desirable to teachers, school leaders, and the general U.S. population. This study also tests whether there is a certain threshold of loss after which individuals exhibit loss averse behavior in policy considerations.

Teacher and Principal Beliefs about English Learner College and Career Readiness
Authors: Diana Mercado-Garcia and Susanna Loeb
Despite the fact that ELs constitute almost 10% of the student population nationwide, little attention has been given to attitudes and beliefs of the college and career trajectories of these students. This project begins by examining attitudes and beliefs of teachers and principals with regard to the barriers faced by their EL students. Understanding the landscape of beliefs about ELs as a subpopulation may help better frame college and career interventions for ELs, who lag behind in high school graduation and postsecondary success.

Educators As "Equity Warriors"
Authors: Jane Rochmes, Emily Penner, and Susanna Loeb
This paper provides a framework (applicable to other sectors) to examine educators’ beliefs about inequality and their role in advancing equity. To progress, teachers need to believe that doing so is valuable, feel empowered to overcome disadvantage, and be willing to make tradeoffs in pursuit of equity goals. Our framework highlights the salience of individual differences between low and high achievers as a form of inequality that may divert teachers’ focus from the structural inequality that is central to policy and sociological concern. We test this framework empirically using novel survey data from over 1,500 teachers collected in a diverse urban school district. Although most surveyed teachers believe addressing inequality is important and feel empowered to do so, many seemingly equity-minded educators do not endorse strategies aligned with closing racial and socioeconomic inequality—indicating an important barrier to reducing inequality.

Differing Views of Equity: Essay Attitudes
Authors: Emily Penner, Jane Rochmes, Jing Liu, and Susanna Loeb

School Choice and Staff Characteristics
Authors: Demetra Kalogrides and Susanna Loeb

Equity Attitudes and Student Outcomes
Authors: Jane Rochmes, Emily Penner, and Susanna Loeb

Teacher Exits and Labor Market Alternatives
Authors: Emily Penner and Susanna Loeb

Unsuccessful Applicants and Labor Market Alternatives
Authors: Emily Penner and Susanna Loeb

The Correlates of Teacher Stress in SFUSD
Authors: Demetra Kalogrides and Susanna Loeb

Applicant Characteristics, Hiring Outcomes, and On the Job Performance and Beliefs
Authors: Emily Penner and Jane Rochmes