Year of publication
Economics of Education Review
This paper examines the effects of different child care arrangements on children's cognitive and social proï¬ciencies at the start of kindergarten. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, we identify effects using OLS, matching and instrumental variables estimates. Overall, center-based care raises reading and math scores, but has a negative effect for socio-behavioral measures. However, for English-proï¬cient Hispanic children, the academic gains are considerably higher and the socio-behavioral effects are neutral. The duration of center-based care matters: the greatest academic beneï¬t is found for those children who start at ages 2â€“3 rather than at younger or older ages; negative behavioral effects are greater the younger the start age. These patterns are found across the distributions of family income. The intensity of center-based care also matters: more hours per day lead to greater academic beneï¬ts, but increased behavioral consequences. However, these intensity effects depend on family income and race.